Linking battery electric vehicles with alternative mobility concepts - An exploratory analysis of consumer acceptance and willingness to pay in Germany
Publication Type:Conference Paper
Source:Gerpisa colloquium, Krakow (Submitted)
Keywords:Alternative Mobility Concepts, Battery Electric Vehicles, Consumer Acceptance, Willingness to Pay
After the 2008/2009 crisis, the automotive industry is reverting to growth. And the growth is likely to continue in the coming years. Up to 2015, global car sales will increase to even more than 90 million vehicles annually, an increase of 20 percent compared to today’s figures. In particular, the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) and emerging markets such as Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines will contribute to this growth. Despite these positive signs, the automotive industry is facing an interminable and far-reaching transformation process. In addition to the continuous improvement of the internal combustion engine and the integration of alternative fuels, in particular new mobility concepts (such as car-sharing) and the electrification of the powertrain (in the broadest sense: e-mobility) will fundamentally change the traditional automotive industry.
Although, during the transformation process of the automotive industry, the transition from conventional drive technologies to battery electric vehicles (“BEVs”), which appear to reduce CO2 emissions and noise in urban areas, will be highlighted, the market penetration of BEVs will take a long time coming. In particular, the infrastructure problems, especially in large cities, consumers’ lack of detailed knowledge about BEVs and the fears of limited range and long charging times leading to a low willingness to pay and acceptance for BEVs. But the market diffusion of BEVs can be accelerated by linking BEVs with alternative mobility concepts. It is possible (I.) to offer BEVs without other mobility concepts (in the narrow sense: traditional purchase and ownership of the vehicle), (II.) to offer BEVs in conjunction with the use of other modes of transport such as train, bicycle and others (“intermodal” transport solutions), (III.) to combine owning BEVs with renting traditional internal combustion engine vehicles for occasional trips (more than 150 kilometres) or (IV.) to offer BEVs within a car-sharing concept (in the narrow sense: no ownership of the vehicle).
Against this background, we conducted an exploratory analysis of consumer acceptance and willingness to pay for BEVs with or without a link to the above mentioned alternative mobility concepts. Our results show that BEVs already find acceptance. More than half of respondents were positive about BEVs. The other half were either undecided or critical about BEVs. The willingness to pay for BEVs was 25,000 euros, and around 5,000 and up to 10,000 euros below current market prices. Only eight percent of respondents were sufficiently willing to pay current market prices. However, our results also show that acceptance and willingness to pay for BEVs can be stimulated by a link with alternative mobility concepts. A link between BEVs and the possibility of the use of other modes of transport not only increases acceptance, but also leads to a six percent higher willingness to pay for BEVs. Linking BEVs with the rental of traditional internal combustion engine vehicles for occasional trips (more than 150 kilometres) shows the highest acceptance and willingness to pay. Due to this link, respondents are willing to accept eight percent higher prices for BEVs. Abandoning BEV ownership by using a car-sharing solution shows the lowest acceptance and willingness to pay. Compared to the current prices of existing car-sharing concepts, respondents rated their willingness to pay around 15 percent lower. Our results show initial evidence that acceptance and willingness to pay for BEVs can be increased by linking BEVs intelligently with alternative mobility concepts.
The analysis and its results will be summarized in the conference paper. Following that, further investigation of the market penetration of BEVs and alternative mobility concepts as well as possible consumption patterns will be conducted.
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